Sunday, 23 October 2011

plastic Injection Molding, Thermosets, Thermoplastics, Polymers

This video will explain you that how the plastic injection molding works.

Plastic injection molding is the method which is mainly used to manufacture parts of thermosetting also thermoplastic materials. In this molding work, the scrap material is put into a box. temperature is given to that box  so as to get a plastic design.
Plastic injection molding is generally used to manufacture car parts, and can be utilized so as to get large car parts as well as small parts. 

The essential difference is that thermoplastics remain permanently fusible so that they will soften and eventually melt when heat is applied, whereas cured thermoset polymers do not soften, and will only char and break down at high temperatures. This allows thermoplastic materials to be reclaimed and recycled.
The reason for this is that thermoplastics have relatively weak forces of attraction between the chains, which are overcome when the material is heated, unlike thermosets, where the cross-linking of the molecules is by strong chemical bonds. Effectively the thermoset is one large molecule, with no crystalline structure.
Compared with thermoplastics, thermosets are generally harder, more rigid and more brittle, and their mechanical properties are not heat sensitive. They are also less soluble in organic solvents.

Working of Fuel Level Sensor In Mechanical Engineering

This vidoe will expalin you that how the fuel tank level sensor works. there is ECM provided and EVAP monitor it. It is used in inspection area.

Thursday, 20 October 2011

A Detail Guide From Final year Project Selection To its Completion

Every project needs good management so that your project should be best and end with some achievements. Be it a mechanical engineering project or some other project, it is necessary and important to strictly follow certain steps for higher efficiency and success rate. If you are a mechanical engineer then your project preparation is the key to success. Here I will discuss some things about the final year project. How to select it and how to manage it.
You project must Value Addition:
Always select such kind of project that is actually the addition of value. Don’t ever pick just any project because your advisor or supervisor handed over it to you or your friend suggested it to you. This means that you must choose a kind of a project which has some substance. As a mechanical engineer you must select a project which is either beneficial to a lot of people or improve your skill technical and managerial both. You project must play its role towards a positive growth in that particular field. Consider how will it affect your growth in terms of learning as an engineer and how will it affect other propel? So for this purpose, do a “need assessment” of your project which will let you know the need and value of the project.
Concentrate on Your Area of Interest:
Being a student of mechanical engineering, I have experienced it many times. I have seen many of my fellows selecting projects out of the scope of their interest. Many engineers select their project without looking at their interest and select it randomly. Which is totally wrong? During the selection of our final year project, my team also did the same. First of all gather the team ideas about the final year project and then select one of them which you will feel better for you.
Get to know the objective and scope of your project:
This is very important; the scope of your project. Before finalizing selection of your project, you need to know the scope of your project. You must know whether the scope of your project is within your resources? Can you do it within available resources in your college, university and labs?
Take the project and execution seriously:
Now that you have finally picked up a project, make sure that you execute and complete it seriously and put your heart into it. Show your responsibility as a team player. Being irresponsible in the field of mechanical engineering is non-tolerable and a mechanical engineer can never survive without being responsible. Remember that as a mechanical engineer whatever you do or build, it’s going to effect a lot of people, so do it accurately and precisely with maximum efficiency.
Make a schedule (Gantt Chart) and stick to it:
Doing mechanical engineering projects preparation entails a lot of thought and careful planning. Make a list of everything that needs to be done, and make a schedule for each. This chart or schedule that you will make is called “Gantt Chart”. Of course, in order to be successful in your undertaking, you have to make sure that you follow the plan to the letter. Doing so will allow you to complete the project within your allotted time frame.
Consult your advisor and guide at all stages:
This is a very common mistake that many of the mechanical engineering students make. They don’t consult their advisors on regular basis. Always keep I mind that there is always a set of guidelines that will determine how you should go about doing things in every project. Every time you are about to do something major or important, make it a point to consult your guide to see if you are on the right track. This will greatly reduce the chance that you will fail with the project or else commit mistakes.
Always there are problems so be prepared:
No matter what kind of project you have chosen to do, problems are inevitable. Do not get frustrated whenever a problem strikes. Have enough courage and determination to complete the project no matter the gravity of the issues you encounter. Have faith that whatever hindrance you may face while doing the project, you still have a chance to succeed and finish your endeavor. Believe that you have the potential to finish the work in within the allotted time.
As said, in mechanical engineering projects, preparation is the key to success. No matter what kind of project you choose, make sure that you take time to consider all the pertinent factors. Doing so will prepare you for whatever obstacles you might encounter as you try to finish your project. With ample preparation, too, you will be able to arm yourself with sufficient knowledge about the things that are important to the project's completion.

Monday, 17 October 2011

AutoCad Tutorial 07

Today i am going to discuss here the 7th tutorial of the Autocad. The main features which i will discuss in this class are listed below.

An object snap mode specifies a snap point at an exact location on an object. OSNAP specifies running object snap modes, which remain active until you turn them off.
  • Running object snap in AutoCad
  • Case by Case (temporary mode)
  • How to do OSNAP setting in AutoCad

Saturday, 15 October 2011

AutoCad Tutorial 06

Here is the new tutorial of Autocad after a long time... actually i was busy in my final year project of engineering....

The main things which i will discuss in this tutorial are listed here.

The basic topic of this tutorial is     DRAWING AIDS

And the things included in drawing aids are

  1. How to use snap command in Autocad
  2. Snap angle
  3. Grid command activation
  4. Uses of Grid command

Thursday, 13 October 2011

AutoCad Tutorial 05

Today i am going to upload here the 5th tutorial of Autocad... you will enjoy it a lot like the previous Tutorials... the main theme of this tutorial is to introduce and explain the basic display commands to you which are very important in Autocad.

Here is the list of commands which are explained in this tutorial.

  • how to use Zoom command in Autocad
  • how to use Pan command in Autocad
  • how to use Redraw and Regen command in Autocad
  • how to use Blipmode command in Autocad

If you need any help regarding any thing then you can contact me in the chat box. which is located on your right side....

Tuesday, 11 October 2011

AutoCad Tutorial 04

Today i am going to upload here the Tutorial#04. The main features which are discussed in this tutorial are listed below.

  • How to Erase any thing in Autocad
  • Selection Set options
    • Window
    • Crossing
  • How to remove object from selection set in Autocad
  • How to use OPPS command in Autocad
  • Selection Preview

if you need any other information related to this topic or any other topic related to mechanical engineering you can contact me here on the chat box which is on your right side.

Sunday, 9 October 2011

AutoCad Tutorial 03

Here is the 3rd tutorial of autocad. you will get the bacis information about autocad in this tutorial e.g how to use different commands in autocad

here is the list of things which are discussed in this tutorial

  1. How to use Line Commad in AutoCad
  2. Cartesian Coordinate system
  3. Absolute Coordinate system
  4. Relative Cordinates
  5. How to turn on the Dynamic Input in Autocad
  6. How to turn on Orthogonal option in Autocad
  7. Polar tracking in Autocad
  8. How to draw different Circles in Autocad
  9. How to use arc command

Stay tunned for more tutorials....
for more information contact me here

or leave a comment here....

Friday, 7 October 2011

Aerosols Introduction and Detail

It is a system consisting of finely divided fluid or solid particles of dispersed in and which are surrounded by gas. In recent years aerosols have become well known products discharged from spray dispensers, and the term aerosol has, in popular speech also come to means the dispenser itself i.e. a pressurized container made of metal or glass and provided with a discharge valve, which may be a spray valve or a foam valve. It is filled with the product to be sprayed and the propellant gas under pressure.
The aerosol can was invented in 1926 by Erik Rotheim. He invented the first aerosol can and valve that could hold and dispense products and propellant systems. This was the forerunner of the modern aerosol can and valve. The patent was sold to a US company for 100,000 Norwegian kroners, but it wasn't until 1941 that it was first put to good use by Americans Lyle Goodhue and William Sullivan. They turned it into an instrument for the US military to fight the malaria mosquito in the Pacific during World War II. Aerosol spray products have three major parts; the can, the valve and the actuator or button.
The term aerosol derives from the fact that matter floating in air is a suspension i.e. a mixture in which solid or liquid or combined solid-liquid particles are suspended in a fluid. To differentiate suspensions from true solutions, the term sol evolved originally meant to cover dispersions of tiny particles in a liquid. With studies of dispersions in air, the term aerosol evolved and now embraces liquid droplets, solid particles, and combinations of these. An aerosol may come from sources as various as a volcano or an aerosol can.

The product to be dispersed as an aerosol may have the liquefied propellant mixed with it in the form of a solution (Fig.1). Alternatively, the propellant may be present as a separate gaseous phase in the dispenser, in which it does not mingle with the product (two-phase system: Fig.2).

An example of the first type is afforded by hair spray. The spray or lacquer, usually dissolved in alcohol, is completely miscible with the liquefied propellant. When the valve button on the dispenser is pressed, the propellant vaporizes immediately, and its pressure forces the liquid out of the nozzle. The liquid i.e., the lacquer solution is discharged as a fine mist. The most commonly employed propellants are chlorinated hydrocarbons, butane, propane, isobutane, vinyl chloride and nitrogen. Nitrogen is used particularly for products that on no account be contaminated in flavor or smell e.g., toothpaste packaged in aerosol dispensers.
Aerosol toothpaste is an example of the second category of aerosol systems particularly, the two-phase system in which the propellant gas forms a separate layer over the product to be discharged. The dispenser is half milled with nitrogen or some other suitable gas and half with the product. The pressure in the dispenser is about 6 to 8 atm. (90 to 120 lb. /in2). Nitrogen can also be used as the propellant for foods packaged in aerosol form e.g., cheese spreads, malt extracts, vitamin preparations, syrups, pudding sauces, whipped cream.
 Filling an aerosol dispenser at the factory is a simple operation (Fig.3: stages 1 to 5). First the product is introduced into the dispenser. This is done by a pneumatic filling machine. Then the aerosol valve is placed on the dispenser. In the next stage the valve is force-fitted under high pressure into the neck of the dispenser, so that a strong gastight seal is formed between the latter and the valve unit. The propellant gas is now forced into the dispenser. Finally, the dispenser is immersed in water to test it for possible leakage, which is manifested by escaping bubbles of gas.
Aerosols are coming into increasingly widespread use in industry. They are used for the disinfection of milk tanks. For this purpose a spraying device is used which draws the disinfectant solution by suction from a container and disperses it as an aerosol by means of two atomizing discs. These discs rotate, and their centrifugal action sets up a suction which draws the disinfectant forward through the hollow shaft of the motor.
To make the aerosol mist flow in the desired direction, a second air stream is needed. A turbine is installed behind the motor sucks in air, which flows along the motor and emerges from the annular aperture around the atomizing discs. This stream of air carries along the aerosol particles of disinfectant (Fig.5).

Airfoil Introduction, Air flow Over Airfoil, Properties of Airfoil

The properties of airflow mainly depends upon
1)       The profile of the airfoil section and on
2)       The occurrences occurring at the boundary layer, it is basically a thin layer of air attached to a solid surface e.g.  We have an airfoil and the air is flowing over it, and which is distinguished from the main airflow by distinctive flow characteristics of its own set up by friction. The flow in the boundary layer where the thickness of the layer is shown greatly exaggerated may be laminar or turbulent. In laminar flow the velocity distribution in the layer shows a steady increase from zero at the surface of the airfoil: more particularly, the wing of an aircraft: to a maximum corresponding to the velocity of the main airflow.
An airfoil is a instrument which gets a necessary reaction from air moving over its surface. When an airfoil moved in air or the air passed through over airfoil, it is capable of producing lift. Lift is the vertical force which the air exerts on the airfoil for e.g.: Wings, horizontal tail surfaces, vertical tails surfaces, and propellers. The flow is smooth and it always move in parallel layers; hence the term laminar. In turbulent flow, the fairly regular motion of the laminar boundary layer is destroyed. The boundary layer undergoes transition; it becomes thicker and is characterized by large random

Types of Mechanical Power Tranmission Devices

Mechanical transmission devices are the basic devices which are used in every machine to transfer power from one part of machine to another part of the machine. By using different kind of mechanisms and motions we can use these devices effectively. These mechanisms are used parallel and the motion is transferred. There are several combinations and or modifications possible but there are six basic types of mechanism.

Crank mechanism The main element is the crank which is rotated and mounted on the frame and is so designed that it can perform complete revolutions/rotation, and its motion is transmitted through the coupler rod to the lever arm, like wide rotatable mounted, but not performing complete revolutions. Other alternative is, instead of being connected to a lever, the coupler may be attached to a sliding element like a piston, in a steam engine or internal combustion engine.

Gear Mechanism This type of mechanism transmits circular motion from one shaft to another, usually in conjunction with a change in rotational speed and torque. Usually in a gear mechanism, the transmission is effected by the meshing of gear teeth, but in the friction-gear mechanism this positive drive is replaced by frictional contact of wheels or rollers.

pulley mechanism Connection between the pulleys on the respective shafts is effected by flexible elements like belts, rope, etc..

Cam mechanism A cam plate mounted on a frame is driven and thus moves a lever or slider which thus performs a desired predetermined motion depending on the shape of the cam, for example like valve control mechanism in an internal combustion engine.

Ratchet mechanism this serves to arrest a motion or to produce an intermittent circular rotation in the driven element. The pawl allows the ratchet wheel to rotate in one direction only preventing rotation in the opposite direction by engaging with the specially shaped teeth on the wheel.

Screw mechanism when the screw spindle is rotated, the element attached to the nut will move in longitudinal direction of the screw. If the nut is rotatable mounted in the frame of the mechanism and driven, the screw spindle will move longitudinally.

Thursday, 6 October 2011

AutoCad Tutorial 02

This tutorial will explain you the basic commands used in the AutoCad

How to save file in Autocad
  1. Security options in Autocad
  2. Auto save option in Autocad
  3. How to Exit Autocad
  4. Temporary files in Autocad

Modal Analysis of a Composite Cantilever Beam

Supervisor: Dr M. Zubair Khan
Project Team: M. Usman Ahmad (ME3-2019), Hafiz Umair Khalid (ME3-2042), Usman Asghar (ME3-2053), M. Sohail Rao (ME3-2060)


Composite material like glass fiber reinforced plastics is extensively used in aerospace structures and has several commercial applications. Composite materials offer different mechanical properties in different directions due to their orthotropic nature. Aluminium ASTM2024 and Steel AISI304 have less tensile strength and high corrosion resistances.


Our objective is to replace the heavy materials steel AISI304 and Aluminium ASTM2024 with light weight composite material fiber glass. So, we have to compare the properties of fiber glass with Aluminium ASTM2024 and Steel AISI304, so, that one can come to know that fiber glass is better than Steel and Aluminium.

Wednesday, 5 October 2011

AutoCad Tutorial 01

Some key points of this tutorial are given below

  1. How to start the AutoCAD
  2. Introduction to Graphics Screen of Autocad
  3. How to use Mouse in Autocad
  4. How to cancel the command in Autocad
  5. Menus and colors in Autocad
  6. Toolbars and How to adjust them and their use
  7. How to Load the Toolbar of your need
  8. Status bar and command prompt
  9. How to type a command in Autocad
  10. How to reissue the last command in Autocad
  11. Short cut keys used in autocad
  12. Function and Accelerator keys in Autocad
  13. how to use help menu

For details of all these topics you can download the pdf file here. In this file all the topics are discussed in detail.
and leave a comment if you like this....

Introduction To AutoCad

Autocad is the software which is used by mechanical or cicil engineers to draw the draings. Which can be 2d or 3d. Civil engineers draw the maps of differnet buildings and the Mechanical engieers draw different machine parts in it.

Their are lots of version available in the market.
from 2004 to 2011
I suggest you to use the latest version.

Here you will learn the tricks and tips to use the aurocad.

Solar Air-Conditioning Using Vapor Absorption Refrigeration Cycle

The absorption cycle is a process by which refrigeration effect is produced through the use of two fluids and some quantity of heat input, rather than electrical input as in the more familiar vapor compression cycle. Both vapor compression and absorption refrigeration cycles accomplish the removal of heat through the evaporation of a refrigerant at a low pressure and the rejection of heat through the condensation of the refrigerant at a higher pressure. The method of creating the pressure difference and circulating the refrigerant is the primary difference between the two cycles. The vapor compression cycle employs a mechanical compressor to create the pressure differences necessary to
circulate the refrigerant. In the absorption system, a secondary fluid or absorbent is used to circulate the rfrigerant. Because the temperature requirements for the
cyclfall into the low-to-moderate temperature range, and 
here is significant potential for electrical energy savings,
absorption would seem to be a good prospect for geother-
mal application.
Absorption machines are commercially available today
in two basic configurations. For applications above 32oF
(primarily air conditioning), the cycle uses lithium bromide
as the absorbent and water as the refrigerant. For applica-
tions below 32oF, an ammonia/water cycle is employed with
ammonia as the refrigerant and water as the absorbent.

Remote Control Recon Ground Vehicle

Supervisor: Mr. Muhammad Nafees Mumtaz
Project Team: Naveed Hussain Asghar (ME3-2007), Nouman Ali (ME3-2008), Atif Mehmood (ME3-2041), Kamran Hassan (ME3-2061)


Today the first need is to increase the defense of the country. This is our little effort to have new technology in our defense. This project will help them in inspection of specific areas with real time video transmission. It can also be used to find the people in collapsed mines, buildings, and in forest. So that narrow places can be approached and monitored easily.

Main Description

Functional remote control ground vehicle which can be easily operate from distance using FM transmission. Installing and functioning a surveillance camera which can transmit video to the computer.


Tuesday, 4 October 2011

Design and Construction of Quad Rotor Flying Object

Supervisor: Col(R) Hafiz Sibghat Ullah Fazil
Project Team: M .Furqan Sarwar (ME3-2004), Hafiz Anwar Ul Haq (ME3-2011), M. Luqman (ME3-2016), M. Haseeb Hafeez (ME3-2027)


Aerial surveillance is the gathering of surveillance, usually visual imagery or video, from an airborne vehicle—such as a unmanned aerial vehicle, helicopter, or spy plane. Numerous technological advances over the past decade have contributed to rapid advances in aerial surveillance hardware such as micro-aerial vehicles, capable of identifying objects at extremely long distances.

Main Description

The project is divided into sub objectives,
  • Functional remote control prototype of quad rotor which can be easily from distance using radio control.
  • Installing and functioning a surveillance camera which can transmit video to ground station.

The project poses particular challenges in terms of weight reduction and controllability. The controls system for such a craft is also complex, as it requires the Synchronization of four individual motors.

The Feller Buncher, the Tree-Ripping Mega Claw

Obviously, this is a robot brontosaurus with a saw on its head. Left to fend for itself, it satisfies its bloodlust by bursting into two-bedroom houses, holding the occupants down with its mighty claw and shearing their faces off. An army of these could conquer the world using nothing but fear, because anybody who looks at one would assume that conventional weapons are useless against it. And trying to hide from one in the forest is clearly ridiculous, so really, the mountains or a desert would be humanity's best hope for survival.

What It Is:
The feller buncher, like the Timberjack, is a logging harvester. It cuts through trees like grass -- and we're not exaggerating. It takes less than a second to bite through a tree trunk, and it can cut through them in bunches, grabbing one after another in its massive claw. It really does need to be seen in action.
At 20 seconds, the feller buncher starts cutting down its first tree. Before 21 seconds, the tree has been cut through and is securely in the grip of the machine. At 25 seconds, the machine starts on the second tree, and by 26 seconds that tree has been lopped down and secured. Two trees in six goddamn seconds. Somewhere, Captain Planet just shit his pants.

The Walking Harvester, the Tree-Eating Robo-Spider

This thing will poach your nightmares with its horrible claw and fling them screaming back into your face. We expect that at any second, Ewoks will emerge and start throwing rocks at it. It looks like it should be guarding Dick Jones at OCP headquarters, ready to throw a goddamn tree at RoboCop's head. Really, it looks like anything but a lumberjack.

What It Is:
A lumberjack, more or less. Existing logging machinery can't get into every place that trees grow. The idea behind the Plustech/Timberjack walking harvester is that it can cross terrain that a machine with wheels or treads wouldn't be able to and clear out trees like a giant green Jean-Claude Van Damme in a head-kicking contest.
Also, the harvester won't tear up the ground around it like a track or wheel, making it about as environmentally conscious as a machine designed for eating a forest can be. Currently it's only a prototype, and there aren't any others in existence, but the benefits of walking technology almost guarantee it a place in future machinery, not just in forestry but in other applications, such as construction and the military.

CFD Modeling of NACA-2415 Airfoil

Supervisor: Mr. Bilal Khan
Project Team: Rub Nawaz Khalid (ME3-2003), M. Farooq Haider (ME3-2006), Bushra Naz (ME3-2012), Adnan Mehmood (ME3-2014)


The Aerodynamic field offers excellent career opportunities for anyone who is related to Mechanical field and has the necessary educational background including extensive training the project on “Airfoil modeling and simulation” covers the modeling (Gambit) details, simulation procedure, measuring the coefficients and finding the lift, drag and moment on different Mach no and different Angle of Attacks.

Main Description

This is basically a theoretical project on CFD Software. The project has following three main phases,
  • Pre-processing which includes geometry creation and mashing by using GAMBIT software.
  • Solving by using FLUENT as solver we determined the required parameters like lift, drag and moments.
  • Post processing includes the interpretation of the results and comparison with reference results.

Block Diagram

world heaviest machines (The Rock Wheel, Circular Saw)

This seems like something The Shredder built which is used for robery, or a vehicle from a future world where the only currency is violence.

What It Is:
A rock wheel. It's basically a giant circular saw on treads, and it's used to cut trenches through concrete, asphalt and, you guessed it, solid rock. So really, robbing a bank still seems like a practical application.

Seriously, this has never been written into a movie before? Villain uses one of these to saw into Fort Knox and take all the gold? Hell, we're surprised nobody has done that in real life.
We're not saying the rock wheel will give you a better shot at taking over the world, we're just saying we don't understand the point of taking over the world if it doesn't give you the opportunity to own things like this.

huge Heavy Machinery the world best machinery (The Chain Trencher, aka Chainsaw Tank)

This seems as a battle weapon which is  used to fight, or a giant chainsaw with tank treads (which is same as what you would use to fight). Either way, we imagine it can push its way through gridlocked traffic in spectacular fashion.

What It Is:
Actually, this one is exactly what it looks like -- a giant goddamn chainsaw with wheels. The chain trencher makes large gashes in the earth, usually used for laying pipe.

Vermeer, the company that manufactures the trencher shown above, makes models that can dig trenches up to 18 feet deep and four-feet wide, which is roughly the size of a fat giant.

which at its deepest can dig down 24 feet and as wide as 5 feet. This should give you a good foothold for building a subterranean lair.
Now, as terrifying as it looks, it can only go through dirt -- it won't help you cut through solid rock. No, for that you'd need.

Implementation of Six Sigma Techniques to Increase production

Supervisor: Engr. Nabi Ahmed
Project Team: Mirza Hashmat Baig (ME3-2001), M. Usman (ME3-2005), Bilal Ahmed (ME3-2030), Abdul Saboor (ME3-2044)


Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects (errors) and minimizing variability in manufacturing and business processes. It uses a set of quality management methods, including statistical methods, and creates a special infrastructure of people within the organization.


This project consists of objectives and Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of process outputs.
  • Reduce the scrap rate.
  • Reduce the consumption rate of drill.
  • Increase the production rate.
  • Using Six Sigma, we can reduce the cost per unit using limited resources.

Alternate Fuel for Diesel Engine

Supervisor: Ms. Muazama Arshad
 Project Team: Sohaib Ashraf, Abdul Rehman, Rashid Mehmood, Tanveer ur Rehman

The New Generation Energy

Biodiesel has been gaining prominence in recent years. Clean and renewable, biodiesel has been touted as the answer to the issue of diminishing energy reserves.


This project involves the study and investigation of waste vegetable oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Edible oils, which are used for several times and become unsuitable for further human use, will be used to make a cheaper fuel. In addition, the performance of engine should not be compromised.


Due to overwhelming prices of fossil fuel, there is a need to find an alternate source of energy for our machines. Keeping this in view, we have taken biodegradable fuel as an alternative for fossils fuel in future and compared its different characteristics with ordinary diesel including engine efficiencies as well.

Block Diagram


  • Non-toxic and biodegradable
  • Increases life of engine
  • Burns cleaner
  • Safer than petroleum fuels
  • Utilizes waste products
  • Reduces waste products
  • Reduces harmful pollutants emitted into the air
  • Reduces economic losses to our agricultural industry

Monday, 3 October 2011


A machine is a device that helps make work easier to perform. (Remember, Work = Force X Distance). A machine makes work easier to perform by accomplishing one or more of the following functions:

1. transferring a force from one place to another,
2. changing the direction of a force,
3. increasing the magnitude of a force, or
4. increasing the distance or speed of a force.


Shell and Spiral Coil Heat Exchange

Supervisor: Mr Bilal Khan
Project Team: Zakki Haider, Sarina Tahira, Jawad Hassan, Asif Khan


A study of more compactness of this type of heat exchanger as compared to the Shell and Tube heat exchanger, with emphasis on design of shell and spiral tube, design economy and optimization, design validation, material selection and prototype fabrication and testing.

Design and Analysis of Heat Exchangers for Waste Heat Recovery System

Supervisor: Lt. Col (R) Afzal Bhatti

Rafaqat Amir ME3-2038 , Masood Ali ME3-2010 , Shakeel Ahmed ME3-2055 , Ahsan Ali ME3-2034

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Wah Engineering College


The search for alternatives to landfill for the disposal of waste and the threat of climate change, worsened by the burning of fuels, has led to need of the time and resurgence of interest in recovering energy from waste – the recovery of energy in the form of electricity.

Pakistan is presently facing a serious energy crisis and the demand exceeds supply and hence "load-shedding" is a common phenomenon through frequent power shutdowns. There is a need to convalesce the energy in any possible way available.

Our approach in the project is to develop a system through which we can efficiently recover the waste heat from the existing Power Plant of POF and utilise it for producting more electricity.


In order to pursue our target for recovering the waste heat, we developed a system which consists of three heat exchangers to be installed in series. Exhaust gases (flow shown in red arrows) in the diagram on the next page, is from V12 Engine, running in counter-flow to the water (flow shown by blue arrows) coming from reservior. The final temperature that is achieved for water is 350 deg C (662 deg F) and it is in superheated form.
The superheated steam is then fed into tubine for power generation.

The process shown in the figure is consisting of following components:

  1. Low Temperature Heat Exchanger
  2. Evaporator
  3. High Temperature Heat Exchanger
  4. Steam Turbine
  5. V12 Engine
There are two fluid circuits i.e.
  1. Exhaust Gases flow circuit
  2. Water flow circuit


Their are different types of tools which we can use in a workshop.
Single point tool
Multi point tool

Mechanical Energy Background and Industrial Revolution

  • before the industrial revolution which began 200 years ago, people were torally dependent on human/animal labor
  • life was simple, unsophisticated and the environment was relitively clean. as such energy requirement were met through food in-take.

Industrial Revolution
  • invention of steam engine by james ex scotland brought industrial revolution in 1785. a first step toward industrialiazation revolution or beginning of mechanical age or age of machines.
  • the advent of IC engine in 19th century gave further momontum to this trend.
  • gradually, industrial revolution spread the whole world.

Comment please if you like this post... and if any one need any other book or topic detail do contact with me on this email id......

    Working of Sensitive Inclined Manometer

    The inclined manometer, it’s for measuring the actual airflow and is simply a more sensitive way of using a manometer, what is of interest is still the height the fluid moves up vertically.
    By inclining, the fluid will travel a further distance for any change in height making it much easier to read small changes.

    Comment please if you like this post... and if any one need any other book or topic detail do contact with me on this email id......

    Comparison Of Hybrid and Simple Gasoline Technology

    Parts Of the Hybrid and Normal Car

    Hybrid Car:

    Gasoline Engine:

    Comment please if you like this post... and if any one need any other book or topic detail do contact with me on this email id......